The wives of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) have a tittle “Ummahat-ul-Momineen”.They also called “Azwaj e Mutahirat”. And the Holy Qur’an addresses wives of prophet Muhammad as the mothers of the believers. In this case, Allah says in Quran: “Surely the Prophet has more authority over the Muslims more than their lives, and the wives of the Prophet are their mothers.” [Quran 33:6]. In the various traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), there are often names of eleven to thirteen of Ummul Munineen. Among the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) were all widows or divorced except Ayesha, and polygamy was common in Arabia. According to historians, most marriages performed to unite the different tribes or to honor these women. And some of them were elderly, so the arguments of those who accuse the Holy Prophet (SAW) of polygamy become invalid. Of these, only Hazrat Khadija bint Khuwaylid and Hazrat Maria al-Qibtiyya had children. Let’s discuss, a summary of the Holy Wives of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
1) Wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid:
This is one of the wives of prophet Muhammad. And the first wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Khadija. Her name is Khadija and her father name is Khuwaylid bin Asad. Due to her pure morals, she known as Tahira. And she was also a wealthy woman from Makkah. After seeing the honesty, perfection, and blessings of the Holy Prophet, she himself had requested marriage. Before the marriage of the Holy Prophet (SAW), she married first to Abu Hala bin Banash Tamimi. And then to Atiq bin Abid Makhzumi. After his death, Hazrat khadija married the Holy Prophet at the age of 40 and the Holy Prophet (SAW) was 25 years old. Hence, Hazrat Khadija was 15 years older than him. All the sons and daughters in his offspring except Hazrat Ibrahim bin Muhammad were born from Hazrat Khadija.
They had four daughters (Zainab, Ruqiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatima), and two sons (Qasim and Abdullah). On the proclamation of Prophethood of the Holy Prophet (SAW), Hazrat Khadija is also the first to bring Islam with the confirmation of Prophethood. Moreover, She was married to him for 25 years, during which time you did not marry anyone else. Thus, all other marriages are after the age of 50. Hazrat Khadija passed away in the tenth year of Prophethood at age of 65 years old. However, the truth and sorrow of Hazrat Khadija were always remembered by the Holy Prophet even after her death.
2) Wife Saudah bint Zama:
All wives of prophet Muhammad are respectfull for us. The second wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Saudah. After the demise of Hazrat Khadijah, the Holy Prophet (SAW) married Hazrat Saudah in the tenth year of his prophethood. At the time of marriage, the Holy Prophet (SAW) was 50 years old and Hazrat Saudah was 55 years old. Hazrat Saudah belonged to the tribe of Amir bin Luwi of the Quraysh. Firstly, She was married to Sukran bin Amr, after his death, she married the Holy Prophet (SAW). Hazrat Saudah passed away during the Caliphate of Hazrat Umar Farooq. Usually, generosity and charity were the salient features of the attributes of Hazrat Soodah.
3) Wife Ayesha bint AbuBakr (RA):
The third wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqah. Hazrat Ayesha’s title is Siddiqah and her surname is Umm Abdullah. She is also the daughter of the first caliph, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq. Since Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq wished that my daughter would be in the house of the Prophet. Therefore, Ayesha married to the Holy Prophet in Makkah. While she came to the house of Prophethood after leave in the first year of the migration.
At that time, the Holy Prophet was 54 years old. Just as the father had rendered great services to Islam. Like him, the daughter also became such a scholar that the great Companions used to ask her about problems. Thus, the narration of 2210 hadiths is from her. After Hazrat Abu Hurayrah and Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar, most of the hadiths are narrated from Hazrat Ayesha. Hazrat Ayesha passed away in 57 AH during the reign of Benawamiya. Only Hazrat Ayesha was a virgin wife of the Holy Prophet, all the others were widows or divorcees. The Holy Prophet also loved Hazrat Ayesha very much.
4) Wife Hafsa bint Umar (RA):
The fourth wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Hafsa. Syeda Hafsa is also the daughter of the second Caliph Rashid, Hazrat Umar Farooq. And her mother’s name is Zainab bint Mazoon who was the sister of famous Companion Usman bin Mazoon. After accepting Islam with her parents and husband Khanis bin Khadzafah, she migrated to Madina with them. In the battle of Badr, her husband was wounded and he was martyred due to these wounds. Thus Hafsa became a widow, so the Holy Prophet married her in 3 AH. At the time of marriage, the Holy Prophet (SAW) was 56 years old. While Umm Al-Mu’mineen Syeda Hafsa was 21 years old. She passed away in Madinah in Sha’ban 45 AH. More particularly Hazrat Hafsa was very devout.
5) Wife Zainab bint Khuzaima:
The fifth wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Zainab bint Khuzaima. First, she married Tufayl ibn Harith, then to Ubaidah ibn Harith. Both of them were real cousins(uncle’s son) of the Holy Prophet. The third marriage was with Hazrat Abdullah bin Jahsh. Later, He was martyred in the battle of Uhud. After the death of the third husband of Hazrat Zainab, the Holy Prophet married her in 3 AH. At the time of marriage, the Holy Prophet (SAW) was 56 years old, and Hazrat Zainab was 30 years old. After marriage, She lived only three months. Then Prophet (SAW) offered the funeral prayer for her and she was buried in Janat al-Baqi. In general, she helped and nurtured the poor so much that she was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakin (Mother of the Poor).
6) Wife Umm Salma bint Abe Umayya:
The sixth wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Umm Salma. Salma’s name is Hind and her surname is Umm Salma. And you are the family of the Banu Makhzoom of the Quraysh. Your father was also one of the wealthiest people in Makkah. First, she married Abu Salma Abdullah bin Abdul Asad Makhzumi who was the cousin of the Holy Prophet. After marriage, she believed in her husband in the early days of Islam and accompanied him in the migration to Abyssinia.
After the migration to Madina, Abu Salama was martyred in the battle of Uhud. And he left four children orphaned. When there was no apparent worldly support, the Holy Prophet took pity on the helpless children and married her in 4 AH. At the time of marriage, the age of the Holy Prophet (SAW) was 57 years. Hazrat Umm Salma passed away in 63 or 64 AH. She was the last of the Ummul Momineen to die.
Assuming that Hazrat Hafsa, Hazrat Zainab bint Khuzaima, and Hazrat Umm Salma’s husband martyred in the battle of Uhud. Or died of their wounds. So Muhammad (SAW) married these widows as worldly support for them.
7) Wife Zainab bint Jahsh:
The seventh wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Zainab bint Jahsh. Her name was Zainab and her surname was Umm Al-Hakam. Her father was Jahsh bin Rabab and her mother was Amima who was the paternal aunt of the Holy Prophet (SAW). Thus Zainab was the cousin of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). More Her two widowed sisters-in-law, Umm Habiba bint Abi Sufyan and Zainab bint Khazeema were also the wives of the Holy Prophet. Hazrat Zainab’s first marriage was to Hazrat Zaid bin Haritha who was a freed slave of the Holy Prophet (SAW). After marriage, the relationship between the two could not be happy and Zayd bin Haritha divorced him. And the Holy Prophet (SAW) married Hazrat Zainab in 5 AH. Hazrat Zainab passed away during the Caliphate of Hazrat Umar Farooq.
8) Wife Jawariya bint Harith:
The eighth wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Jawariya. Her birth name was Bara, which the Prophet (SAW) changed to Jawariya. She was the daughter of Harith bin Abi Zarar, the chief of the tribe of Bani Mustaliq. First, she married a young Musafih bin Safwan of his tribe who has killed in a battle between the Muslims and the Bani Mustaliq. And Hazrat Jawariya made a slave. During her captivity, Hazrat Jawariyah came to the service of the Prophet (SAW). And asked you for help. Thus, the Prophet (SAW) paid the money and invited her to the marriage, which she accepted. Therefore, in Sha’ban 5 AH, she married to the Holy Prophet (SAW). At the time of marriage, the blessed age of the Prophet (SAW) was 58 years. Umm Al-Mu’minin Syeda Jawariya passed away in 50 AH۔
9) Wife Umm Habiba bint Abi Sufyan:
The ninth wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Umm Habiba. Her name was Ramla and her surname was Umm Habiba. Her mother Safia bint Al-Aas was also the aunt of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). First Umm Habiba married to Obaidullah bin Jahsh. Later they both converted to Islam together in the early days of the Enlightenment.
And she migrated with him to Abyssinia. A few days after arriving in Abyssinia, Obaidullah became an apostate. After the death of Obaidullah, the Holy Prophet (SAW) sent a message of marriage to her through Najasi Abyssinia, which she accepted. Najashi performed the nikah of Syeda Umm Habiba (RA) and the Holy Prophet (SAW) in 6 AH. And on behalf of the Holy Prophet (SAW), he paid 400 Ashrafi Haq Mahr. At the time of marriage, Umm Al-Mu’minin Syeda Umm Habiba was 36 years old and the Holy Prophet (SAW) was 59 years old. After coming to the Haram of the Prophet, she came to Madina and passed away in 44 AH.
10) Wife Safia bint Huyaiy:
All wives of prophet Muhammad show kindness and respect to the prophet (SAW). The tenth wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazrat Safia. She belongs to the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. So you are one of the descendants of Hazrat Haroon (AS). Her father, brother, and husband killed in the war. Hence, she came into captivity. Then the Holy Prophet gave her the option of converting to Islam or remaining true to their religion. If you convert to Islam, I am ready to get married. Otherwise, you will be released to reunite with their families. Instead of returning to her family, Hazrat Safia converted to Islam and was ready to marry the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet freed her, then married her in 7 AH. She passed away in 50 AH.
11) Wife Maimuna Bint Harith:
The eleventh wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is Hazar Maimuna. Her father’s name was Harith bin Hazan. She married Masood bin Amr before marrying the Holy Prophet (SAW). After separating from them, she got marry to Abu Dham and he died in 7 AH. Then the Holy Prophet married Hazrat Maimuna in 7 AH at the request of his uncle Hazrat Abbas. At the time of marriage Prophet(SAW) was 60 years old. Hazrat Maimuna died in 51 AH.
12) Wife Maria al-Qibtiyya:
According to some traditions, Hazrat Maria was a slave girl. But according to most of the traditions, the Holy Prophet (SAW) had married her. Shah Muqawqis sent Maria al-Qibtiyya as a gift to the Holy Prophet (SAW), but in 6 AH the Holy Prophet (SAW) married her. So she is also one of the mothers of the believers. Ibrahim bin Muhammad was born from her womb. She passed away in 16 AH.
13) Wife Rehana bint Shimon (RA):
Syeda Rehana (RA) is from the Jewish family of Banun Nadir. Some historians have linked you to Banu Qurayzah. Her father was Shimon bin Zayd who had the honor of companionship. Hazrat Rehana was first married to a man named Hukam of Banu Qurayzah. Among the Jews who killed after the Battle of Banu Qurayzah was Hukam. And Muslims captured Rehana as a prisoner of war. The Holy Prophet (SAW) made her stay at the house of Hazrat Umm Al-Mundhir bint Qais. After her conversion to Islam, she married the Holy Prophet (SAW).
At the time of marriage, the Holy Prophet was 59 years old. When the Prophet (SAW) returned from the farewell pilgrimage to Madina, Rehana passed away. And the Holy Prophet (SAW) himself offered the funeral prayers and Hazrat Rehana (RA) buried in Janat al-Baqi. This is the third life partner after Hazrat Khadija Al-Kubra and Hazrat Zainab bint Khuzaima. Who passed away during the blessed life of the Holy Prophet (SAW).
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